Career Coaching: 4 more things that go wrong at interviews

We run Interviewer Skills Workshops and run Interviewer Skills Coaching days to get the Interviewers learning “in the muscle”. We’ve interviewed lots of people over the years and seen lots of interviewers do their new stuff. You will I’m sure not be surprised that we’ve seen candidates come prepared to fail.

As a way of getting you to prepare and get the job of your dreams the Rainmaker team came up with our top 10 examples.
In the first blog we shared 3 and in this blog I’m going to share my second 3 things we’ve seen go wrong (and in another blog the last 4)

1. I hated my old boss
Don’t fall into the trap  of bad mouthing past bosses or colleagues, even if they were the worst individuals on the planet.

If you left under a compromise agreement and have to talk about old bosses, then talk about all of the bosses you did like.

Then maybe a little about why you and your boss didn’t work out from both points of view.

You should mention that you tried your best but couldn’t work it out.
Do not bad mouth your old boss!

Then change the topic with a question about your new potential bosses management style!

2. Norwegian Blues don’t get jobs
It’s vital that you practice and rehearse how you answer the standard questions that your coach will equip you with…

Never come across like you are reading from an autocue or like Polly from the Monty Python Parrot sketch (although come to think of it Polly was an ex Parrot) .

You should be able to tailor your answers to ensure that you are answering with examples relevant to the job in hand

3. Answer  the ACTUAL question
Listen carefully to the question.
There will be a specific example of a skill or capability that the interviewer will be trying to draw out.
You should have a story prepared that demonstrates your competency.
Don’t waffle.
We find the STAR format works for stories.
What was the Situation?
What was the Task in hand?
What Action did you take?
What Results did you achieve?
Practice your stories and you should answer the question well

 4. Watch and use your body language
Your interviewer will be allive to your language from the moment you arrive to when you leave.
You need to impress and to sell yourself.
Watch the Amy Cuddy Body Language video on TED

Greet the interviewer with a firm handshake, not a limp handshake that suggests a weak character.
Smile and make eye contact.

Remember you cannot NOT Communicate… Yes please read that again.



Business Development Training – Rainmaking: Manager as Coach: Fear of Client Seniority

The group coaching style Business Development Training workshops for teams of people who do not have sales in their job titles are some of the most productive and fun ones that we run.

They do however surface a few of what we can only describe as distorted thoughts on the topic of business development or rainmaking.

We thought that as a coach to your people you may like to have our views on how to deal with some of them.

Today’s distorted thought topic is Scared of Seniority.
You may hear it verbalised as something like

“The Chief Information Officer will not see me.
I’m not important enough for them to take a meeting with me.
I’m only  a humble consultant ” + (Accompanied by wringing of hands, Uriah Heep-like)

Your possible actions: Going for seeing is believing

Send in a VP or similar senior person from your company in with the consultant.
However rehearse the structure of the meeting and opening questions with the consultant before.
Rainmaker e-book Planning Great Customer Appointments

Have the consultant run the meeting and afterwards positively reinforce that THEY ran the meeting not your VP.

Possible Reframing Questions : Trying to go for believing then seeing

So what’s a good way to ReFrame  this to help your consultant break through?
What questions might help them see it differently and Re-Frame their response?

  • What current level in the client organisation do you normally operate at?
  • How did you move up to that level ?
  • How do you prepare for meetings at that level?
  • What topics do you cover at your meetings?
  • What do we know about what CIOs worry about?
    • Revenue increasing?
    • Cost reducing?
    • Employee productivity increasing?
    • Customer Satisfaction improving ?
  • Do any of the aspects of our solution do any of those?
  • Can we express what our solutions do in simple business lanaguage?
  • Wouldn’t you want to see someone who could offer you a solution to your issues?
  • What’s the worst thing that could happen to us ?
  • How do other people in your position meet with CIOs? Don’t know? Go find out?

By having them think about their frame of reference for this problem you may well get them to ReFrame it and move on past it.

I’d be very interested in your views and techniques to handle this distorted thinking.

Good Rainmaking



Performance Management Training: Rapid Skill Acquisition

So you have a scenario in your place of work: You need to have a group of people change.

They have to begin to deliver a different type of service or deliver it in a different way.

They have to behave differently.      They have to learn new skills.

AND they have to do it QUICKLY …

How can you help them?

Here are a few ideas based on the book from Josh Kaufman :
The first 20 hours :How to learn anything fast: 

  • Choose a loveable project
    • If you are excited by a project you’ll want to acquire the skill
    • You naturally acquire skills that you care about
  • Focus your energy on ONE skill at a time
    • If not you’ll spend too much time switching
    • Don’t give up on other skills you want to acquire, just save them for later
  • Define your target performance level
    • Start with a low target and reset the target when you reach it.
    • If you want to run cross-country start with a small country
  • Deconstruct the skill into subskills
    • You don’t have to practice everything all the time
    • Get very good at one sub-skill and then build
  • Obtain Critical tools
    • Get ALL the RIGHT tools you need before you start
  • Eliminate Barriers to practice
    • Tools not available
    • Distractions in the environment
    • Emotional blocks
    • Too much effort involved to practice
  • Create fast feedback loop
    • Get a coach to help (your manager)
    • Buddy up with someone who can give you honest feedback
  • Make dedicated time for practice
    • Log where you spend your time for a few days
    • Find 90 minutes of low value time per day and use that to practice
    • Practice for 20 hours then reflect on progress
  • Practice by the clock in short bursts
    • Set a timer and practice for 20 minutes
    •          3 to 5 times a day
    • Practice until the timer goes off
  • Emphasise quantity and speed
    • Practice as much as you can at a “good enough” level rather than strive for perfection
    • The faster and more often you practice the more rapidly you’ll acquire the skill.

And if you want to hear from Josh himself here’s a 20 minute video on YouTube.

If you’d like any assistance to help people change behaviours and acquire new skills please call or email


Manager as Coach Training: Seven Principles to Manage Brilliant Women ( and Men too:)

A Guest blog from Kate Burton

I coach so many amazing women. Talented, focused and hardworking.
(And plenty of men too!) People like you…and the people you manage, lead and coach too.

Here’s the challenge.

They usually don’t notice how good they really are. (I meet more humble women than men.)
They highlight what they can’t do perfectly rather than what they do so well.
So how do you get them to step up? And stop waiting in the shadows helping others to shine when inside they are secretly wondering why nobody is giving them the space they deserve?

Here are seven ways to help your people take ownership of their shiny talents and use them to make a difference in the world.

As you put your ‘manager as coach’ hat on, encourage them with the following guiding principles …

  1. Pay attention to your own passion and energy.
    Only you can take ownership of your career (and life), so don’t wait for others to set your direction and tell you what to do
    Start by noticing what fires you up and gives you energy.
    Spend more time in this space and you’ll be unstoppable as you inspire other people with your enthusiasm.
  2. Appreciate yourself.
    Set your intent to validate and appreciate yourself and what you stand for, in all your works
    When others see how you value yourself, they’ll value you more and have the courage to be more like you.
  3. Develop a protective skin.
    Skin is the biggest organ in the body and has amazing properties to protect and heal.
    Imagine that you can put an extra super-coating on your body as you step up and face the world. One that others can’t easily tear or damage, and which will repair itself if knocked.
    Can you think of anyone brilliant who never gets criticised?
    No, then decide you don’t have to please everyone, all of the time.
  4. Develop your sponsors.
    Everyone benefits from others who look out for them and filter opportunities their way.
    (I’ve noticed that while women are good at getting mentors, men are particularly better at getting sponsors.)
    Make sure you cultivate relationships with those people who want the best for you, will extol your virtues rather than delight in your faults or make you feel scared. Leave behind those who love to control or criticise and look for those who’ll stretch and support you to raise your game.
  5.  Quiet the voice on your shoulder that says:
    ‘Who are you to put your head above the parapet?’
    It’s normal to have some noisy ‘chatter’ that gets in the way.
    Stop and listen to the infamous words of Marianne Williamson as you ask yourself:
    “Who am I to be brilliant, gorgeous, talented and fabulous?” Actually, who are you not to be? . . . as we let our own light shine, we unconsciously give other people permission to do the same. As we are liberated from our own fear, our presence automatically liberates others.’
  6. Replace humble with daring.
    So many women, in particular, play safe. They fear their own vulnerability.
    In order to harness your courage, you need to be-friend your vulnerability.
    Once you do, you’ll find your own natural and greater leadership.
    Dare to dream the impossible.
    If you reach for the stars, then you can always set your sights closer to earth.
  7. Let others be brilliant too.
    Be generous in your support of others. They’ll appreciate it and reciprocate.
    The world is big enough for everyone to be their best, so never try and keep others down through your own insecurities and comparisons. The best leaders let others fly.
    Encourage your people to: Be bold. Have fun. Get on with it!

And if you need help on the way, we offer loads of resources, books, coaching and workshops to support you including the popular Manager as Coach programme.

And you could always take a look at Kate’s book

And remember to share the principles with other brilliant women, and men too…

People Management: How to Coach Employees when it’s your agenda?

How best to Coach Employees when the Manager is initiating the discussion

Employee coaching can and does take place in many circumstances.
Anytime a conversation takes place to guide behavior or build new knowledge or skills.

Coaching can be on a very informal basis, a short chat at a desk, in an office corridor, at a coffee machine. It can also happen in a more formal session.
An appraisal type discussion or performance review and to set goals for the coming year.
These are natural occasions for coaching to occur.
Coaching is quite different to offering one-way guidance.
That’s what we call Mentoring.

How best to Coach Employees?
When you are initiating the discussion.

Our suggestion is to follow these steps every time this kind of coaching discussion takes place:

Step 1: Seek to get into rapport and establish mutual trust

The foundation of coaching is the coach’s ability to establish rapport with the individual. Coaching should be a sincere and positive event with the goal of working together to deliver improvements in performance and growth.

Step 2: Opening the Discussion if Manager Initiated

Clarify, in a non-evaluative, non-accusatory way, the specific reason the discussion is taking place. Describe how a coaching-style discussion will be valuable to both parties.

Step 3: Seek Agreement on the Area of Focus (Reality)

Critical is getting the employee to agree what the main focus of the discussion will be.
Coaching should be specific to a given skill, area of knowledge or a new behavior.
It is not a general chat about many things at the same time.

The skill of specifying the issue or behavior change required consists of four parts.

  1. Give specific examples of the issue or area on which you wish to focus.
  2. Clarify what you are thinking may be possible.
  3. Ask the employee for feedback
  4. Gain agreement on the fact that a new approach could be tried.

Step 4: Explore with the employee a future Goal for the area of focus

Next, explore ways in which the employee may learn new skills or behave in a new or different way.
Avoid jumping in with your own alternatives, unless the individual can’t think of any.
Push for specifics not generalisations.
Listen for commitment words. Question words like try, might, possibly , could, should.

Step 5: Explore Options

Your goal in this step is not to choose a particular path, but to maximise the number of choices for the employee to consider and to discuss their overall benefit.

Step 6: Deal with any possible barriers and offer support

Employees may raise excuses or present barriers to doing things differently at any point during a coaching discussion.
The Manager should help them to reframe and think as laterally as necessary.
The goal here is to ensure that the employee is confident to act.
They should not be reluctant or nervous or feeling stretched beyond their capability

Step 7: Seek Commitment to Act (Will) and a Timeframe in which to do so

The next step is to help the employee choose one particular way forward.
The manager should ideally look for a verbal commitment from the employee regarding what action will be taken and when.

Step 8: Provide a final summary

The role of the manager is now helping an employee that they coach to execute well.
One way to do this is to provide a final summary on what has been agreed.
Confirm this in a email to ensure clarity for both parties on what has been committed to happen and by when. Include in here future review dates


Coaching employees is fast becoming something every leader needs to do regularly.
Coaching is not about issuing commands to people to change their ways.
Nor is it one-way guidance about what should be done differently in the future.
Coaching means having a structured discussion with an employee .
It should allow for two-way discussion and a joint decision about what should be done next.
If this is done well, employees will more rapidly learn and grow.
They will begin to make greater contributions to the organisation

Performance Management Training: What do Managers need to be a good coach?

What do Managers need to be a good coach?

Many companies ask their managers to coach employees.
Many managers find it difficult.

(Our Performance Management Training Workshops help)

Coaching needs a set of skills that need to be developed.
The manager has a number of hats to wear and “Coach” is only one of them.
Often they are looked upon to provide guidance, give answers, settle conflict, build team spirit, issue directives, set objectives.
These require behaviours different to those of a coach.

What are the skills that are necessary in order to be a successful business coach?
We think that a manager acting as an internal coach should be able to draw upon these

  1. This one is how we start our Coach the Coaches training .

    You need to be there.

    That can just mean being “available” when needed.

    Then you need to be there “in the room” Physically AND Mentally”.

    Not looking at your “crackberry” or listening for the ping of email messages

    Completely focused on the person to be coached

    If that is too difficult then please pass up the opportunity to coach.

  2. You need to have an ability to build rapport quickly and build trust.

    You must agree expectations for individuals at the early stages of coaching.

    You must be able to treat each individual as unique

    You need to adjust your coaching style accordingly.

  3. You need an ability to “Agree” goals and targets

    You balance between goals that are too easy and goals which are too stretching.

    Take your lead from the person being coached.

    In our experience they’ll agree a more agressive goal that you’ll set


  4. The ability to put your manager hat on for a moment to suggest areas for coaching

    Then Coach you way through

    1. What people should keep doing (positive reinforcements)
    2. What they should stop doing or lessen (which can be more negative feedback)
    3. Work with them generating new ideas that they can start doing
  5. The ability to conduct effective coaching conversations

    You need to be comfortable asking the individual being coached for ideas and suggestions.

    You then listen actively and attentively.

    Encourage individuals to think back on their experiences and discuss lessons learned.

    Debate with them implications of the experience for future behavior or action.

    Remember the answer is with the person being coached not you.


  6. An Ability to follow a structured coaching conversation.

    Using the GROW model for example.

    Working through that each time with the coachee

    Maybe after the first two or three conversations tell them the structure.

    That way they can use it themselves before they see you

  7. The ability to conclude coaching conversations positively and follow up

    You need to either summarise the conversations or get the coachee to.

    Then follow up with individuals so that all sessions build on the last and are as action oriented as possible.

    Hold the agenda for the person but they are responsible for progress.

If when you look through this list and say to yourself that you are happier providing guidance, giving answers, settling conflict, building team spirit, issuing directives, setting not agreeing objectives then perhaps you should cancel yourself off of the Coaching for Managers workshops and just get back to managing.  Or maybe you just fancy a challenge??

Sales Mentoring: What kind of Sales Manager do you want?

What kind of Sales Manager do you want?

(We cover this and other topics in our Sales Mentoring Service)

Four Types of Sales Manager?

A number of the Rainmaker Sales coaches have worked their way up from Sales Person through Sales Manager and to Sales Director. We have also worked with numbers of Sales Managers in many kinds of companies and cultures. We put our heads together and came up with a hypothesis that we think we have seen around four types of Sales Manager. There are many variations but in the main four types.

 1. The “Do as I say” or “Dictator” Manager

This type of sales manager “rules the roost” and “dictates” what should be done.
Listening skills are limited.
A typical response is along the lines of “Do it this way because it has worked this way before”
The advantage of this approach is that people know exactly where they stand.
Rules and company regulations are fully understood and guidelines are adhered to.
The result is that overall the sales team is seen as “well disciplined”.
Not a bad place for a while as a rookie.
People also know that if the rules and guidelines are not adhered to, then discipline will follow.
The major challenge with this “do as I say” approach is that you will find it hard to get them to take little risks. Your opinion may not be valued and ideas may not make it out of the team.
Some more experienced sales people may get frustrated and feel under valued.
These managers may be mirroring behaviour of managers that they had themselves and few have ever been near a management training course.

What to do if you have one of these?

  • Stay if you are happy with little need to be creative.
  • Stay if you are a new sales person and need to learn the ropes
  • Move if you are unhappy being told what to do.
  • If experienced then get promoted out of the group
  • Leave management books around
  • Give the sales manager your ideas so that they become their own and consequently dictated to you!

2. The “Now you see me, now you don’t” Manager.

Often characterised by always having other things to do, these sales managers appear not to like to spend days visiting and working with the sales people.
They seem to attend endless meetings, arrange trips to head office and are apparently more comfortable spending time in front of the computer pouring through sales figures.
A day “in the field” usually is  meeting up late morning, chatting over a cup of coffee then perhaps suffering a visit to one customer before having a “discussion” over lunch and then heading off back to a report or meeting.

This type of manager always seemed to want to keep the mobile on during visits.
“Waiting for an important call” maybe their most favourite saying.

You will get little time spent with you and will get even less coaching and review.
Time is spent either idly chatting or issuing directives, maybe because the manager is uncomfortable listening to your ideas.
Especially if these ideas might bring about change and impact on the manager’s routine!

We think these are what HBR refers to as “Successful” in the article Effective vs Successful Managers  i.e this job is only a stepping stone for them.
They are only going to be in the job for a sort period because they think they have future potential elsewhere in the organisation.  These managers are usually promoted quickly and not given enough training. They cannot spend time coaching because they are stretched with some of them still having visible Head Office projects. Some of them are simply inexperienced and are not able to handle their immediate manager. They jump at every request made by the senior manager, they have to attend every meeting, write every report and answer every voicemail and e-mail in order to keep in the senior manager’s “good books”.

What to do if you have one of these?

  • Move if you are unhappy being just being left to get on with it.
  • Stay if you are happy with autonomy
  • Talk about how training can improve performance
  • Leave “How to Manage your Boss” books around

3. The “Let me Do It” or the “Super Salesperson” Manager

These managers find it tough to let people work for themselves.
They would love to get back into the field and would do as many field visits as possible.
They miss the customer contact and when out with the sales person immediately engage the customer and “take over” the sales call.
Very little coaching will be done and the manager will tell you the best way to do things based on their experience and success. You will see far too much of your manager and when they take over the sales call you will feel that your integrity in the eyes of the customer is being threatened. Sometimes even your customer will feel uncomfortable.

Having said that many Sales People can actually learn by watching this manager operate.
It can help you as the manager has often been a good sales executive
Your Sales may improve as a result of implementing what you observe.

What to do if you have one of these?

  • Stay for a while if you are learning new techniques and skills
  •  Use a Simple Rainmaker meeting Planner to agree roles before you go to see a customer. Give your manager a role but not as a sales person!
  • Get promoted if you are an experienced sales person and have mastered the sales process but remember you can usually learn something from everyone

4. The Coaching Manager.

The Coaching Manager takes time with his or her people.
Field visits are planned in advance.
Agreements as to what each person wants to achieve out the day are reached and objectives are set and reviewed.
Time is taken to plan good quality sales calls and time is also put aside in order to discuss the business plan.
They also work through any ideas and challenges that you may have.
A full day will be spent whenever possible and the manager will coach the sales person to assist them in identifying their objectives and how best they are going to achieve them.

They will coach you and review how the sales call went and you will get good quality feedback.
You see the coaching manager as supportive but as the manager and not just a “friend”.
You will realise that the manager is giving tough but constructive feedback in order to assist you to development and succeed.
The coaching manager will be skilled in using coaching models such as GROW.

What to do if you have one of these?

  • Stay with them
  • See if you can move with them if they move (Hanging onto shirt tails)
  • Use a Simple Rainmaker meeting Planner to agree roles before you go to see a customer.

Which type of Sales Manager do you have?

Which type do you prefer to work with?

Are there other types we’ve missed out?

Let us know.


People Management: Do your people feel overwhelmed?

Do people in your team fit into the 25% and 50% of people who report feeling overwhelmed or burned out at work?

It seems to be a combination of the number of hours we’re working, but also the fact that we spend too many continuous hours juggling too many things at the same time.

Our sense is that what we’ve lost, above all, are stopping points, finish lines and boundaries.

Our use of technology has blurred them all beyond recognition.
Wherever we go, our work follows us. It’s on our digital devices, always on , ever insistent and if we let them be, intrusive.

It’s like an itch we can’t resist scratching, even though like scratching that usually makes it worse.

Do you answer email during conference calls and sometimes even during calls with other people?
Do you bring your laptop to meetings and then pretend you’re taking notes while you surf the net?
Do you eat lunch at your desk?
Do you make calls while you’re driving, and even send the occasional text, even though you know you shouldn’t?
Can we suggest that probably the biggest cost — assuming you don’t crash — is to your productivity.

It’s a simple consequence of splitting your attention, so that you’re partially engaged in multiple activities but rarely fully engaged in any one.
Jack of all trades /Master of none?

The research suggests that when you switch away from a primary task to do something else, you’re increasing the time it takes to finish the original task by an average of 25 per cent.

However it is also because if you’re always doing something, you’re relentlessly burning down your available reservoir of energy over the course of every day.
That means you’ll have less energy available with every passing hour.

I would suggest that you know this from your own experience.
You will I’m sure have experienced the euphoria you get from getting two to three times as much work accomplished when you work from home or can focus without interruption for a designated period of time and then take a real break, away from your desk.

We think the best way for an organisation to fuel higher productivity and more innovative thinking is to strongly encourage finite periods of absorbed focus, as well as shorter periods for real renewal.

If you’re a manager, here are three policies worth considering promoting:
1. Maintain meeting discipline.
Schedule meetings for 45 minutes, rather than an hour or longer, so participants can stay focused.
Take time afterward to reflect on what’s been discussed, and recover before the next obligation.
Start all meetings at a precise time, end at a precise time, and insist that all digital devices be turned off throughout the meeting.

2. Stop demanding or expecting instant responsiveness at every moment of the day.
It forces your people into reactive mode, fractures their attention, and makes it difficult for them to sustain attention on their priorities.
Let them turn off their email at certain times.
If what you have for them to do is urgent, you can call them — but that won’t happen very often.

3. Encourage renewal-time.
Create at least one time during the day when you encourage your people to stop working and take a break.
Offer a mid-afternoon class in yoga, or meditation.
Organise a group lunch-time walk or workout, or consider creating a renewal room where people can relax, or even take a nap.

It’s also up to individuals to set their own boundaries.

How about trying these new three behaviours for youself?

1. Do the most important thing first in the morning, preferably without interruption, for 60 to 90 minutes, with a clear start and stop time.
If possible, work in a private space during this period, or with sound-reducing earphones.
Finally, resist every impulse to distraction, knowing that you have a designated stopping point.
The more absorbed you can get, the more productive you’ll be. When you’re done, take at least a few minutes to renew.

2. Establish regular, scheduled times to think more long term, creatively, or strategically.
If you don’t, you’ll constantly succumb to the tyranny of the urgent.
Also, find a different environment in which to do this activity — preferably one that’s relaxed and conducive to open-ended thinking.

3. Take real and regular breaks from work.
When we say real that means that when you’re off, you’re truly disconnecting from work.
Regular means several times a year if possible, even if some are only two or three days added to a weekend.
The research strongly suggests that you’ll be far healthier if you take all of your vacation or holiday time, and more productive overall.

A single principle lies at the heart of all these suggestions.

When you’re engaged at work, fully engage, for defined periods of time.
When you’re renewing, truly renew.
Make more of the boundaries between black and white and stop living your life in the gray zone.

Coaching and Mentoring: 9 Myths of Coaching

Myth 1: You need to be an expert:
You don’t and often knowing what you would do and how, gets in the way of the coachee finding the right answer for them.

Myth 2: You need to have a formal coaching qualification:
No not necessarily, but you do need some key interpersonal skills, broad life and business experience.
The knowledge of and confidence to use an appropriate coaching model and approach would be very useful.

Myth 3: You should not coach a manager and someone reporting to them
Yes you can. However in all things coaching and mentoring be extra confidential and make sure that you are not being used as a communicating vehicle for them.

Myth 4: You must know the answers:
Absolutely not.
However it is your role to help the coachee to find answers that will work for them.

Myth 5: You give coachees what they want (ask for):
Yes but occasionally you should also offer them what you perceive they need – which may well be very different from what they are asking for.

Myth 6 : You cannot coach someone on the telephone:
Yes you can and some coaches have set themselves up coaching purely on the telephone
– However it is not the same communication relationship experience as face to face and we only use telephone conversations or emails usually to augment face to face coaching sessions.

Myth 7: It is enough for a coachee to merely ‘get it off their chest’
Whilst there is a benefit for coachees to be able to unburden themselves to a coach this is not the point of the exercise.
The aim is for them to think and then ACT differently as a result.

Myth 8: You must stick to the organisation’s agenda:
Not in our experience, however if an agenda does exists then you should ensure that the coachee knows exactly what it is from their manager/sponsor and that they buy-in to working on it.
The essence of non-directive coaching is that the coachee gets to work on their own agenda and not just that dictated by the organisation.
It is important that the sponsor knows that you are taking this approach.
In either case usually the end goal is to help the coachee to maximise their performance and satisfaction.

Myth 9: Anyone can be coached:
Only if they take responsibility, follow through on the actions that they have agreed and they want to be supported by a coach.